Sensitivity is important, as is the relationship between the teacher and learner. In terms of measured effect sizes, feedback, remediation, and direct or explicit instruction are more effective in promoting student achievement than problem-based learning, inductive teaching, inquiry-based teaching and the like.
Consider the feedback you use with your students. 7: 67-72. (2007). The criteria used for assessing student work need to be clear, understood by the student and used to frame personalised feedback. Learners who don’t receive instruction, encouragement and correction can become disillusioned and quit due to lack of progress. We always get nervous when our son / daughter starts with a new teacher, but you have set our minds at ease with your focus on creating a welcoming classroom environment.” “We were so happy to hear that you would be our child’s teacher this year. Dinham, S. (2007b). While students were working individually or in groups, teachers were observed to be moving through the class, quickly monitoring, assessing, suggesting, explaining, questioning, listening and commending. Effective teaching in the context of a Grade 12 high-stakes external examination in New South Wales, Australia. I really like this idea. Teneriffe, Qld. There’s nothing wrong with feedback from a computer if it contains the essential features of effective feedback. Your tone is confusing and jumps around. Broadly, is feedback to students and parents consistent? Hattie, J. EARLI Biennial Conference, Budapest, Hungary. Great work! (1998). When those who see themselves on the discovery learning or constructivist side also see themselves as facilitators they may shy away from giving ‘hard’ assessment, reporting ‘failure’ or providing feedback which might upset or discourage the learner, a reluctance that can become very strong if you also subscribe to notions of ‘free expression’ and ‘multiple realities.’. Australian Educational Leader. Using the eight questions posed above, how could you improve the feedback you offer students? Likewise, ticking boxes on marking sheets without accompanying comment is ineffective and impersonal. My advice to any teacher, department or school seeking to improve student achievement is to start with feedback, that thing which we know has the largest or near largest effect size in respect of student learning.
Conduct an audit.
The right balance needs to be struck between not wanting to hurt someone’s feelings and destroying their confidence. Elmore, R.F.
Then, you react by guiding pupils to progress and make connections from your comments.
Feedback can be written or spoken and may even be gestural, indicating approval, encouragement or criticism. An expert teacher, mentor or coach can readily explain, demonstrate and detect flaws in performance. Mayer, R. (2004). The importance of teacher quality as a key determinant of students’ experiences and outcomes of schooling. What is feedback? Dinham, S. (2007a). 77(1): 81-112. How can we provide our students with improved feedback?
Teachers make a difference: What is the research evidence? Broadly, how effective is our feedback? Â©Shutterstock/Monkey Business Images, Self esteem: Caution â do not over-inflate, Teacherâs bookshelf: Educational leadership, Teacher Staffroom: Educational leadership, Australian Council for Educational Research, Copyright policy and publishing permissions.
It stands to reason that if a student doesn’t know where he or she stands and how he or she can improve, then parents will have even less of an idea and will be poorly equipped to assist and provide support to both student and teacher. (2003). In some cases, the feedback given by teachers might be considered excessive.
Feedback also keeps students on track and is an aid to classroom management. American Psychologist. Developing potentials for learning: Evidence, assessment, and progress. They frequently consulted with students and provided written and verbal feedback on these notes, often during class time. One English teacher we observed maintained a regime whereby after each lesson students were required to write 250 words on two key matters arising from the lesson. & Timperley, H. (2007). This is an edited version of an article that was originally published in the May 2008 print edition of Teacher. Some people like to think of teaching and learning in terms of a dichotomy that opposes explicit teaching or direct instruction with discovery learning or constructivism. Teaching and Learning in Middle Schooling A review of the literature: A report to the New Zealand Ministry of Education.
More informally they gave feedback to students individually and collectively through observing and commenting on students’ class work and responses to questioning. Unicorn. http://www.education.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/education/staff/j.hattie/j.hattie_home.cfm. Getting to scale with successful educational practices, in S.H. For more on this, see Leadership for exceptional educational outcomes and ‘The secondary Head of Department and the achievement of exceptional student outcomes.’.
Current Directions in Psychological Science. Feedback interventions: Towards the understanding of a double-edge sword.
: Post Pressed. Ayres, P., Dinham, S. & Sawyer, W. (2000). The research evidence, however, is clear.
NSW Quality Teaching Awards: Research, rigour and transparency. Look at learning or mastery in fields as diverse as sports, the arts, languages, the sciences or recreational activities and it’s easy to see how important feedback is to learning and accomplishment.
Successful senior secondary teaching. A teacher feedback form is what one uses to give teachers feedback on how they are in educating a class, or it may be used by the teacher to assess the performance of one ore more students. Is the feedback our students receive infrequent, unfocused, unhelpful, inconsistent or negative? Comments and suggestions contained within feedback need to be focused, practical, and based on a professional assessment of what the student can do and is capable of achieving. Children respond to feedback. It’s also important not to confuse feedback on performance with ‘positive reinforcement,’ self-esteem ‘boosting’ – as Catherine Scott and I described it in a 2005 article in the Australian Educational Leader – or praise or punishment.
Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? For more on this, see John Hattie’s 2007 paper, Richard Mayer’s 2004 ‘Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning?’ or my 2007 work with Ken Rowe. Dinham, S. (2002). The research evidence is clear: great teachers give great feedback, and every teacher is capable of giving more effective feedback. Other teachers in the study were seen to insist on student note-making rather than note-taking or copying.
Is the feedback we provide focused, comprehensive and improvement oriented, addressing the four key questions raised above? To make teacher feedback actionable, make sure that it points to a skill-based goal and encourages self-reflection. Drawn from various disciplines, the teachers we studied gave timely, frequent, high-quality, focused, constructive feedback to their students.
Examples of Feedback for the Teacher at the end of the First Week of Class. How does my work compare with that of others?
In reviewing the findings from a range of meta-analyses, Hattie and Timperley found that, ‘Those studies showing the highest effect sizes (for feedback) involved students receiving information feedback about a task and how to do it more effectively. Camberwell: ACER. The answers to these questions will provide an important foundation for improving the quality of teaching and student achievement in our schools. How will we know if it works? This was placed on the teacher’s desk at the commencement of the following lesson and during that lesson while students were working the teacher read and wrote comments upon these notes. Teachers can also receive feedback on their performance from peers or supervisors. Review of Educational Research. Scott, C. & Dinham, S. (2005). (2003). When asked to provide evidence and guidance on enhancing the quality of teaching and student performance, I’m usually equivocal about advocating quick fixes because I know how long it can take to turn a school around, as I’ve already said in How schools get moving and keep improving. http://www.acer.edu.au/documents/RC2003_Hattie_TeachersMakeADifference.pdf, Hattie, J. Paper presented at the Australian Council for Educational Research Annual Conference on Building Teacher Quality, Melbourne, October. A bare mark of 6 out of 10 with a comment along the lines of ‘good’ is next to useless in providing guidance for improvement and in answering those four key questions.
Australian College of Education (September): 1-20. Many teachers become defensive when a principal offers negative feedback, particularly if the feedback comes as the result of hearsay or a random one-time visit to the teachers’ classroom. Students know which teachers never check homework, mark books or monitor and assess their work in other ways.
Oftentimes, a student only gets to speak with a teacher one-to-one when he or she is in trouble, which may be why a constructive one-to-one interview has so positive an effect. How schools get moving and keep improving: Leadership for teacher learning, student success and school renewal.
Evaluating and offering feedback to teachers is one of the hardest jobs a principal must do. There’s also scope for peer, that is, student-student feedback and for students to provide feedback to a teacher on that teacher’s performance. British Educational Research Journal. © 2020 Australian Council for Educational Research — ACER, official partner of UNESCO, Great teachers give great feedback, Stephen Dinham writes. Are our assessment methods and criteria clear, valid and reliable? 28(1): 5-9.
It should be noted that there is the potential for feedback to be negative, in that it can discourage student effort and achievement, as John Hattie and Helen Timperley note in The power of feedback.
The power of feedback. Discussion paper prepared for the Interim Committee of the NSW Institute of Teachers available at: http://www.nswteachers.nsw.edu.au/library/Rowe.html. This feedback was then given back to the students later in the lesson. Ineffective Examples of Accessible & Actionable Teacher Feedback. It’s not a substitute or remedy for poor teaching.
Every student wants to do better. 59(1): 14-19.
It is similar to using a Workshop Feedback Form wherein the information can provide knowledge on what certain people are able to contribute to help them and others grow. Parenting, teaching and self-esteem.
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