Lo scozzese[1][2], nota anche col nome nativo di scots (scots leid; /ˈskots lid/), è la lingua germanica occidentale, del ramo anglo-frisone, in uso nella Scozia, nell'Ulster e nella zona di confine della Repubblica d'Irlanda (definito Ulster Scots), affine all'inglese ma profondamente diversa dal gaelico scozzese. English is the main language spoken in Scotland today and has been the since the 18th Century. The languages of Scotland are the languages spoken or once spoken in Scotland. Norn evolved from the Old Norse that was widely spoken in the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland and the west coast of the mainland during the Viking occupation from the 8th to the 13th centuries.

Norn was also spoken at one point in Caithness, apparently dying out much earlier than Shetland and Orkney. Primitive Irish is known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the Ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 6th century AD. There are also many Brittonic influences on Scottish Gaelic. [19] Furthermore, the process was also influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections and spelling pronunciations.

names such as Aberdeen, Tranent and Ochiltree. The ancestral Common Brittonic language was probably spoken in southern Scotland in Roman times and earlier. Shaped by our rich history and vibrant culture, the ancient Celtic language of Gaelic is still spoken throughout Scotland. Whereas Gaelic was the dominant language in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Lowlands of Scotland adopted the language of Scots. L'aumento del prestigio dello scots antico nel XIV secolo, e il declino del francese in Scozia, rese lo scots la lingua di prestigio della maggior parte della Scozia meridionale e orientale. There are four dialect groupings: Insular Scots – spoken in Orkney and Shetland; Northern Scots – spoken in Caithness, Easter Ross, Moray, Aberdeenshire and Angus; Central Scots – spoken in the Central Lowlands and South West Scotland; and Southern Scots – spoken in the Scottish Borders and Dumfriesshire. Cambridge: CUP.

There are some enthusiasts who are engaged in developing and disseminating a modern form called Nynorn ("New Norn"), based upon linguistic analysis of the known records and Norse linguistics in general.[22][23]. Often the Brittonic influence on Scots Gaelic is indicated by comparing with the Irish Gaelic usage which is not likely to have been influenced so much by Brittonic. The Beurla-reagaird is a Gaelic-based cant of the Scottish travelling community related to the Shelta of Ireland.[4]. In particular, the word srath (anglicised as "Strath") is a native Goidelic word, but its usage appears to have been modified by its Brittonic cognate ystrad, whose meaning is slightly different. Latin abbreviations can also be seen on British coins and in mottos etc. Scotland's Census 2011 – Language, All people aged 3 and over. [16] This modern literary dialect, "Scots of the book" or Standard Scots[17] once again gave Scots an orthography of its own, lacking neither "authority nor author". [11] Modern Scots is used to describe the language after 1700, when southern Modern English was generally adopted as the literary language. Since there is a very high level of mutual intelligibility between contemporary speakers of Scots in Scotland and in Ulster (Ulster Scots), and a common written form was current well into the 20th century, the two varieties have usually been considered as dialects of a single tongue rather than languages in their own right; the written forms have diverged in the 21st century. [7] Later influences on the development of Scots were from Romance languages via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman[8] and later Parisian French due to the Auld Alliance; as well as Dutch and Middle Low German influences due to trade and immigration from the Low Countries.

Geographic distribution of Scots and Gaelic speakers in Scotland. By the beginning of the 15th century, the English language used in Scotland had become so different as to appear as a completely different language, albeit a language without a name. The Norn language, a North Germanic language, is now extinct. By the 16th century Middle Scots had established orthographic and literary norms largely independent of those developing in England. Pritennic may have been a precursor of Pictish.[6]. Kilmarnock, inbhir (Inver-, Inner-, meaning a confluence) e.g. It was spoken by the independent kings of Galloway in their time, and by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. Goidelic languages were once the most prominent by far among the Scottish population, but are now mainly restricted to the West. The most Gaelic influenced variety being Hebridean English, spoken in the Western Isles. In a 2010 Scottish Government study, 85% of respondents noted they speak Scots. Each of the numerous languages spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history falls into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, p. 204, Mackie, Albert D. (1952) “Fergusson’s Language: Braid Scots Then and Now” in Smith, Syndney Goodsir ed. Scots has its origins in the variety of Early northern Middle English spoken in southeastern Scotland, also known as Early Scots. In common with other Indo-European languages, the neologisms which are coined for modern concepts are typically based on Greek or Latin, although written in Gaelic orthography; "television", for instance, becomes telebhisean and "computer" becomes coimpiùtar. [15] Consequently, this written Scots looked very similar to contemporary Standard English, suggesting a somewhat modified version of that, rather than a distinct speech form with a phonological system which had been developing independently for many centuries. The Viking invasions of the 9th century forced the dialect to split in two and in the north it began to evolve into Scots. L'inglese antico, o lingua anglosassone, era già diffuso nella Scozia sud-orientale nel VII secolo, essendo la regione parte del regno anglosassone di Northumbria. p. 249, William Grant and David D. Murison (eds) The, McClure, J. Derrick (1985) "The debate on Scots orthography" in Manfred Görlach ed.

[30] 15,723 of these reside in the Outer Hebrides, where the language is spoken by the majority of the population. Al giorno d'oggi i prestiti dal gaelico sono principalmente caratteristiche geografiche e culturali, come ceilidh, loch e clan. From the 13th century Early Scots spread further into Scotland via the burghs, early urban institutions which were first established by King David I. The Goidelic language currently spoken in Scotland is Scottish Gaelic. After the twelfth-century reign of King David I and the so-called "Davidian Revolution", the Scottish monarchs are perhaps better described as Scoto-Norman than Gaelic, often preferring French culture to native Scottish culture. The Scots language is much closer in style to that of traditional English, and debate has raged for many years as to whether it is a separate language or just a dialect.

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scottish language

[18] During the 20th century a number of proposals for spelling reform were presented. Pictish is usually seen as a Brittonic language but this is not universally accepted. There are over 170 languages spoken in Scotland, and those include Arabic, Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, Farsi, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Kurdish, Makaton, Mandarin, Punjabi, Polish, Spanish, Turkish, Urdu and many more.

This diversity is often seen as a mark of local pride among Scots. Lo scots include prestiti linguistici in seguito al contatto con il gaelico. [citation needed]. Out of the 5,118,223 residents of Scotland over the age of three, 57,602 (1.1%) can speak Scottish Gaelic. Speaking the language of a country is very important for improving education or work opportunities. Common place name elements from Gaelic in Scotland include baile (Bal-, a town) e.g. A History of Scots to 1700, DOST Vol. Our innovative English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programme offers people living in the Scotland an affordable way to learn and improve their English, and to get the most out of living in Scotland. The heapet happer's ebbing still. (See Dialect).

The first towns, called burghs, appeared in the same era, and as they spread, so did the Middle English language. Norn persisted well into the 19th century, as the Faroese linguist Jakob Jakobsen wrote: Most of the use of Norn/Norse in modern-day Shetland and Orkney is purely ceremonial, and mostly in Old Norse, for example the Shetland motto, which is Með lögum skal land byggja ("with law shall land be built") which is the same motto used by the Icelandic police force and inspired by the Danish Codex Holmiensis. [3] L'anglosassone rimase confinato a questa regione fino al XIII secolo, rimanendo una lingua di uso comune mentre il gaelico era la lingua della Corte Scozzese. These developments were offset by the acquisition of the Norse-Gaelic west, and the Gaelicisation of many of the noble families of French and Anglo-French origin and national cohesion was fostered with the creation of various unique religious and cultural practices. Although the Highlands and Islands are the stronghold of the Gaelic language, the number of speakers is steadily increasing and Gaelic speakers can be found in all parts of the country. With verbs, for instance, they will simply add the verbal suffix (-eadh, or, in Lewis, -igeadh, as in, "Tha mi a' watcheadh (Lewis, "watchigeadh") an telly" (I am watching the television), rather than "Tha mi a' coimhead air an telebhisean". The Celtic languages of Scotland can be divided into two groups: Goidelic (or Gaelic) and Brittonic (or Brythonic). They are known collectively as the Insular Celtic languages. [32] According to the 2011 census, 1,541,693 people can speak Scots in Scotland, approximately 30% of the population.[2]. The resulting shift towards Standard English by Scots-speakers resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers, often mistaken for mergers by linguists unfamiliar with the history of Scottish English. In total 92,400 people aged three and over in Scotland had some Gaelic language ability in 2001. Gaelic has been part of the Scottish consciousness for centuries and is considered to be the founding language of the country. Ulster Scots is defined in legislation (The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999) as: the variety of the Scots language which has traditionally been used in parts of Northern Ireland and in Donegal in Ireland.[27]. 12 p. xliii, A History of Scots to 1700, pp. Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but as Q-Celtic has a far greater overlap with P-Celtic than with English in terms of vocabulary, it is not always possible to disentangle P- and Q-Celtic words. p. 60-61, Macafee, C. (2004). Scotland has an excellent reputation for welcoming people from around the world to our shores to live, work and study, and this diversity brings with it many different languages, spoken by a diverse and growing population. Scotland's Census 2011 – Language, All people aged 3 and over. There are a few signs used in Scotland which are unique to the country, as well as variations in some signs from Dundee to Glasgow (similar to accents). Diagrammatic representation of the development of the historic Indo-European languages of Scotland: According to the 2001 census Scottish Gaelic has 58,652 speakers (roughly 1% of the population of Scotland). In recent times the Gaelic language has experienced a renaissance and is enjoying new levels of popularity. Altre influenze sullo sviluppo dello scots furono da lingue romanze come il latino, utilizzato in ambito ecclesiastico e legale, il francese diffusosi grazie alla Auld Alliance e l'olandese grazie al commercio e all'immigrazione proveniente dai Paesi Bassi.

Lo scozzese[1][2], nota anche col nome nativo di scots (scots leid; /ˈskots lid/), è la lingua germanica occidentale, del ramo anglo-frisone, in uso nella Scozia, nell'Ulster e nella zona di confine della Repubblica d'Irlanda (definito Ulster Scots), affine all'inglese ma profondamente diversa dal gaelico scozzese. English is the main language spoken in Scotland today and has been the since the 18th Century. The languages of Scotland are the languages spoken or once spoken in Scotland. Norn evolved from the Old Norse that was widely spoken in the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland and the west coast of the mainland during the Viking occupation from the 8th to the 13th centuries.

Norn was also spoken at one point in Caithness, apparently dying out much earlier than Shetland and Orkney. Primitive Irish is known only from fragments, mostly personal names, inscribed on stone in the Ogham alphabet in Ireland and western Britain up to about the 6th century AD. There are also many Brittonic influences on Scottish Gaelic. [19] Furthermore, the process was also influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections and spelling pronunciations.

names such as Aberdeen, Tranent and Ochiltree. The ancestral Common Brittonic language was probably spoken in southern Scotland in Roman times and earlier. Shaped by our rich history and vibrant culture, the ancient Celtic language of Gaelic is still spoken throughout Scotland. Whereas Gaelic was the dominant language in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Lowlands of Scotland adopted the language of Scots. L'aumento del prestigio dello scots antico nel XIV secolo, e il declino del francese in Scozia, rese lo scots la lingua di prestigio della maggior parte della Scozia meridionale e orientale. There are four dialect groupings: Insular Scots – spoken in Orkney and Shetland; Northern Scots – spoken in Caithness, Easter Ross, Moray, Aberdeenshire and Angus; Central Scots – spoken in the Central Lowlands and South West Scotland; and Southern Scots – spoken in the Scottish Borders and Dumfriesshire. Cambridge: CUP.

There are some enthusiasts who are engaged in developing and disseminating a modern form called Nynorn ("New Norn"), based upon linguistic analysis of the known records and Norse linguistics in general.[22][23]. Often the Brittonic influence on Scots Gaelic is indicated by comparing with the Irish Gaelic usage which is not likely to have been influenced so much by Brittonic. The Beurla-reagaird is a Gaelic-based cant of the Scottish travelling community related to the Shelta of Ireland.[4]. In particular, the word srath (anglicised as "Strath") is a native Goidelic word, but its usage appears to have been modified by its Brittonic cognate ystrad, whose meaning is slightly different. Latin abbreviations can also be seen on British coins and in mottos etc. Scotland's Census 2011 – Language, All people aged 3 and over. [16] This modern literary dialect, "Scots of the book" or Standard Scots[17] once again gave Scots an orthography of its own, lacking neither "authority nor author". [11] Modern Scots is used to describe the language after 1700, when southern Modern English was generally adopted as the literary language. Since there is a very high level of mutual intelligibility between contemporary speakers of Scots in Scotland and in Ulster (Ulster Scots), and a common written form was current well into the 20th century, the two varieties have usually been considered as dialects of a single tongue rather than languages in their own right; the written forms have diverged in the 21st century. [7] Later influences on the development of Scots were from Romance languages via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman[8] and later Parisian French due to the Auld Alliance; as well as Dutch and Middle Low German influences due to trade and immigration from the Low Countries.

Geographic distribution of Scots and Gaelic speakers in Scotland. By the beginning of the 15th century, the English language used in Scotland had become so different as to appear as a completely different language, albeit a language without a name. The Norn language, a North Germanic language, is now extinct. By the 16th century Middle Scots had established orthographic and literary norms largely independent of those developing in England. Pritennic may have been a precursor of Pictish.[6]. Kilmarnock, inbhir (Inver-, Inner-, meaning a confluence) e.g. It was spoken by the independent kings of Galloway in their time, and by the people of Galloway and Carrick until the early modern period. Goidelic languages were once the most prominent by far among the Scottish population, but are now mainly restricted to the West. The most Gaelic influenced variety being Hebridean English, spoken in the Western Isles. In a 2010 Scottish Government study, 85% of respondents noted they speak Scots. Each of the numerous languages spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history falls into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. Focus on: Scotland, Amsterdam: Benjamins, p. 204, Mackie, Albert D. (1952) “Fergusson’s Language: Braid Scots Then and Now” in Smith, Syndney Goodsir ed. Scots has its origins in the variety of Early northern Middle English spoken in southeastern Scotland, also known as Early Scots. In common with other Indo-European languages, the neologisms which are coined for modern concepts are typically based on Greek or Latin, although written in Gaelic orthography; "television", for instance, becomes telebhisean and "computer" becomes coimpiùtar. [15] Consequently, this written Scots looked very similar to contemporary Standard English, suggesting a somewhat modified version of that, rather than a distinct speech form with a phonological system which had been developing independently for many centuries. The Viking invasions of the 9th century forced the dialect to split in two and in the north it began to evolve into Scots. L'inglese antico, o lingua anglosassone, era già diffuso nella Scozia sud-orientale nel VII secolo, essendo la regione parte del regno anglosassone di Northumbria. p. 249, William Grant and David D. Murison (eds) The, McClure, J. Derrick (1985) "The debate on Scots orthography" in Manfred Görlach ed.

[30] 15,723 of these reside in the Outer Hebrides, where the language is spoken by the majority of the population. Al giorno d'oggi i prestiti dal gaelico sono principalmente caratteristiche geografiche e culturali, come ceilidh, loch e clan. From the 13th century Early Scots spread further into Scotland via the burghs, early urban institutions which were first established by King David I. The Goidelic language currently spoken in Scotland is Scottish Gaelic. After the twelfth-century reign of King David I and the so-called "Davidian Revolution", the Scottish monarchs are perhaps better described as Scoto-Norman than Gaelic, often preferring French culture to native Scottish culture. The Scots language is much closer in style to that of traditional English, and debate has raged for many years as to whether it is a separate language or just a dialect.

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